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Late War Impression
The organization being in agreement that the Late War Impression shall represent the typical volunteer soldier of the State of Virginia during the period April 1864-April 1865, the following guidelines are approved as of January 01, 1998 and shall become effective on January 01, 1998.
I. Jacket - Two types: Richmond Depot pattern as defined by Mr. Les Jensen as the "Type III" pattern: Six piece body with a 7-9 button front. Type II pattern without epaulettes or belt loops.
A. Fabric - Blue-gray woolen kersey (British Army cloth)
B. Buttons- Two Piece Stamped Brass of one of four patterns:
1. Confederate Block "I"
2. Federal "Eagle" general service
3. Federal "Eagle" with Infantry "I" in shield
4. Richmond Depot wooden
C. Epaulette buttons- of same style as above or plain except in cuff size.
D. Lining- Fabric shall be unbleached cotton osnaburg throughout. One inside pocket in the left breast shall be sewn into or onto the lining.
E. Collar- Shall be from 1-1/8 to 1-5/8 inches -in height.
F. Stitching- All stitching to be done by hand or machine with unbleached cotton thread. Button holes and topstitching along the button line and around the cuffs are to be hand stitched with unbleached white cotton topstitch and button hole thread.
Note: Also acceptable is the Peter Tait Contract Jacket (after Sept. 1864); with Blue-gray woolen kersey, collar in French blue wool, lining to be linen material, buttons to be script I, eight coat size in front, two cuff size on bastion shaped epaulettes trimmed in French blue. All stitching except buttonholes to be by machine.
II. Trousers - Two styles shall be allowed:
A. Richmond depot or other military patterns
1. Cut high in the waist loose in the seat no split in cuffs.
2. Waistband width shall be from a minimum of 7/8 inch in the rear to a maximum of 1-3/4 inches in the front.
3. Fly shall be from 1-1/4 inches to 1-3/4 inches in width.
4. Trousers shall have an adjustment belt and buckle in rear below the waistband.
5. All visible stitching shall be hand-sewn. Hidden interior stitching may be machine sewn.
6. Topstitching shall be of unbleached or off-white cotton or cotton covered polyester top stitching/buttonhole thread.
7. Buttons shall be four hole type of bone, tin, porcelain or pewter.
B. Commutation Pattern - Shall be cut generally the same as the military style patterns with the following differences:
1. Fabric may be of brown, black, or gay wool or woolen jeans.
2. Lining may be of brown, black or unbleached cotton fabric.
3. Topstitching may be of black, brown, or unbleached white topstitching/buttonhole cotton or cotton covered polyester thread.
4. Visible stitching should be sewn by hand but may be sewn by machine on civilian style trousers.
5. Buttons shall be four hole type of bone, tin, porcelain, or pewter.
III. Hats - Three styles shall be allowed:
A. High crowned military cap: These shall be of fight to medium gray wool or woolen jeans. They shall have a black leather brim of a minimum of 1-3/4 inches in prolongation and a black patent leather chin strap with brass adjustment. Two brass two-piece buttons shall hold chin strap on and shall be of Virginia state seal pattern, Federal "Eagle" pattern, or plain brass. The cap shall have a welt around the crown. Caps shall have a leather sweatband and brown or black cotton lining. No ornamentation is permitted. Militia caps shall be permitted
B. Low crowned military cap: These shall be of a light to medium gray or a brownish caste of gray in wool or woolen jeans. It shall have a black leather brim of a minimum of l-3/4'iches prolongation and a black patent leather chin strap with brass adjustment. Two brass two-piece buttons shall hold chin strap on and shall be either plain brass or of Federal "Eagle" pattern. The cap shall have a leather sweatband and brown or black cotton lining. No ornamentation is permitted. The cap shall not have a welt around the crown but shall have a sunken top and shall have a burlap stiffener inside.
C. Slouched or Plug Hat: These hats shall be of black, brown or buff wool felt with silk or satin ribbon head band and sweat band of leather or cloth. Hats shall have brims from 2-1/4 to 33/4 inches in width and crowns no taller than 5-1/2 inches. Prohibited hats are straw hats, bowlers, wheel caps, top hats, stovepipes, or extremely floppy hats. No ornamentation is allowed. Hat cords are not advised.
IV. Shirt: Shirts shall be of any period pattern and shall be cotton cloth in white, brown, brick red striped or checked patterns. Patterns may be of woven thread or dye print. Prints shall be of a relatively large pattern on a single background color. Buttons shall be four hole type of bone, porcelain, mother-of-pearl, or pewter. Colors should be plain and subdued. Prohibited prints include calico, small paisley and any multi-colored print.
V. Socks: Socks shall be gray, brown, or white knitted wool or cotton. No colored tops or toes allowed.
VI. Shoes (brogans) - Four styles shall be allowed:
A. U.S. Military issue: These shall be of black leather with leather soles and ties. Soles shall be either pegged or sewn together.
B. C. S. Military Issue: Shall be of black or russet leather. Straight last or right/left are allowed. These shall have leather soles and ties. Pegged or sewn.
C. Civilian Style: Shall be of black leather with leather soles and ties. These shall be of any common period style.
D. British Contract: These shall be of black leather with the smooth side of the leather on the outside. These shall be right and left. Leather soles and ties are required.
VII. Vests - Two styles shall be permitted:
A. Military style vest: Shall be of light gray or dark blue wool cloth. Shall have a stand-up collar approximately 1 inch in height. There shall be a nine button front with Virginia state seal or Federal eagle two-piece cuff size brass buttons. Interiors shall be lined white or brown cotton or osnaburg. Back is to be constructed of black or brown with belt of same material with buckle. Three to four pockets shall be allowed; two near the bottom and one or two at the breast.
B. Civilian style vest: Shall be of woo1en material in gray, brown, blue or black, in solids and simple patterns. There shall be a five to six button front with plain brass or cloth covered buttons. Lining shall be of osnaburg or white or brown cotton. Backs shall be brown or black cotton with belt of the same material with buckle. Shall have two pockets on the front near the bottom.
VIII. Weapons - The following are approved as originals or reproductions:
A. MI816, M1822, or M1835 Springfield/Harpers' Ferry muskets converted to percussion.
B. M1842 Springfield/Harpers' Ferry musket.
C. Transitional Model Virginia Manufactory musket converted to percussion.
D. M1855, M1861, M1863, or M1864 Springfield or contract .58 caliber Rifled-Musket.
E. PI853, P1855 Enfield .577 caliber Rifled-Musket.
IX. Bayonet: Socket bayonet corresponding to the selected weapon. Three styles of scabbard shall be permitted:
A. M1842 or similar for .69 cal. musket socket bayonet. Shall be constructed of black leather with waist belt carriage and brass finial.
B. M1855 for .58 cal. Rifled- Musket bayonet of black leather with waist belt carriage and brass finial.
C. Enfield style for.577 caliber Rifled-Musket bayonet of black leather and with waist belt carriage and brass finial.
X. Waist belt - Four styles shad be permitted:
A. Roller Buckle style: Shall be between 1 to 2 inches in width of black leather with a japanned steel roller buckle with one tongue and a black leather keeper.
B. Frame Buckle style: Shall be approximately 2 inches width of black or russet leather and have a two- tongued square "Georgia Frame" or rectangular "Forked Tongue" buckle of cast brass.
C. Belt Plate Style: Shall be approximately 2 inches in width of black buff or bridle leather. Shall have a cast brass oval or upturned 'U.S.' oval belt plate.
D. U.S. Regulation Belts
M1841 Infantry- was made of white buff leather with a leather loop and
the small US plate. This plate had only one arrow stud and a hook.
2. M1841 Riflemen - was made of black buff leather 2 in wide with a leather loop and used the large 3.5 x 2.2 in US plate. This plate had two studs and a hook.
3. M1851 - was made of black buff leather 1.5 in wide with a leather loop at the left end. The US plate, 2.8 x 1.6 in, was attached to the right end. This plate had one arrow stud and a hook. This style waist belt was extensivly copied by the southern states during the War.
4. M1855 Infantry - was made of black buff or bridle leather 1.9 in wide with a brass keeper on the left end and the US plate, 3.5 x 2.2 in, was attached to the right end. This plate had two arrow studs and a hook. This was the most commonly made waist belt made during the War.
5. M1855 Rifleman - was made of shoe leather, black on the outside and russet on the inside, 2.2 to 2.4 in wide. This belt had two brass loops attached near the simple two piece hook-style buckle; the loops were used to attach the knapsack breast straps.
XI. Cap Pouch - two types:
A. Leather. Shall be the variant style commonly known as the "shield front "(M1842 or M1855). Constructed of black bridle leather with a brass finial with one or two leather loops on the rear. Pouch shall have double flaps with tuft of sheep's wool and leather loop for nipple prick.
B. Painted cloth. To be similar in design to the leather shield front but constructed of two or layers of painted cotton fabric.
XII. Cartridge Box Sling - two styles shall be allowed:
A. Leather: Black bridle or buff leather, 2-1/4 to 2-1/2 inches wide and of a length so that the cartridge box rests on the hip just below the waist belt.
B. Painted cloth: Shall be of black painted cotton fabric from two to several layers in thickness and sewn together with cotton or flax thread. The belt should be from 1-7/8 inches to 2-1/4 inches wide of a length so that the cartridge box rests on the hip just below the waist belt. The belt shall have a leather billet at each end.
Note: Breastplates are prohibited.
XIII. Cartridge Boxes - Five types allowed:
A. Model 1839 Variant
B. Model 1842 Cartridge Box,.69 cal.: Shall be made of black bridle leather with double flaps and implement pocket. The box shall have two horizontal loops on the rear and two buckles on the bottom to engage shoulder belt. Tin inserts required.
C. Model 1855 Cartridge Box, .69 Caliber: Shall be made of black bridle leather with double flaps and implement pocket. The box shall have two horizontal loops on the rear and two buckles on the bottom to engage shoulder belt and two vertical loops on the rear to engage waist belt. Tin inserts required.
D. Model 1855 Cartridge Box, .58 Caliber: Shall be made of black bridle leather with double flaps and implement pocket. The box shall have two horizontal loops on the rear and two buckles on the bottom to engage shoulder belt and two vertical loops on the rear to engage waist belt, Tin inserts are required.
E. Painted Cloth: Similar to the M1855 .58 cal. box but made of two or three layers of painted cotton material.
Note- Cartridge Box plates are prohibited on all models.
XIV. Haversacks - four styles are allowed:
A. Unpainted with buckle closure: Shall be from 14 inches deep by 10 3/4 inches wide to 14 inches deep by 12-1/2 inches wide in size. Fabric shall be white cotton duck. Interior shall have removable cotton cloth bag held in place by three bone or stamped tin buttons sewn to the interior of the haversack. Sling shall be non-adjustable. Closure shall be 1/2 -inch black or russet leather strap and keeper with japanned roller buckle.
B. Painted with buckle closure: Shall be from 14 inches deep by 10-3/4 wide to 14 inches deep by 12-1/2 inches wide in size. Fabric shall be of white cotton duck or drill with black painted exterior. Interior shall have removable cotton cloth bag held in place by three bone or stamped tin buttons sewn to the interior of the haversack. Sling shall be non-adjustable. Closure shall be 1/2 inch black leather strap and keeper with japanned roller buckle.
C. Painted with button closure: Shall be from 14 inches deep by 10-3/4 inches wide to 14 inches deep by 12-1/2 inches wide in size. Fabric shall be white cotton duck or drill with black painted exterior. Interior shall have removable cotton cloth bag held in place by three bone or stamped tin buttons, sewn to t the interior of the haversack. Sling shall be nonadjustable. Closure shall be single button of bone or stamped tin sewn to the bag with a hand-stitched buttonhole on the flap.
D. Unpainted with button closure: Shall be approximately 12 inches by 12 inches in size with no gusset in the bottom. Fabric shall be of white cotton duck or drill. Sling shall be non-adjustable. Closure shall be front one to three bone or wooden four hole buttons or brass or cast pewter flat buttons. Buttons shall be sewn to bag with button holes in flap.
XV. Canteens - four styles to be allowed:
A. Wooden "cheese box" style: Shall be of oak or cedar wood, approximately 7 inches in diameter and with cork or wooden stopper. Canteen shall have strap of white cotton or russet leather.
B. Plain face tin drum: Shall have slight convex face with flat back or with both sides flat. Approximately 5 to 7-1/2 inches in diameter and 1 1/2 to2-1/21inches thick. Shall have white cotton or russet leather strap. Shall have wooden or cork stopper.
C. Model 1858 "Smooth side": Shall have gray or blue wool or woolen jeans cover or may be used without cover. Shall have white cotton or black or brown leather strap. Leather strap shall have roller buckle and keeper. Canteen shall have cork stopper. Dimensions shall be 7 to 8 inches In diameter and 2 1/2 inches thick at the center.
D. Model 1858 "Bullseye" (Produced after 1861): Shall have gray or blue wool or woolen jeans cover or may be used without cover. Shall have white cotton or black or brown leather strap. Leather strap shall have roller buckle and keeper. Canteen shall have cork stopper. Dimensions shall be 7 to 8 inches in diameter and 2 1/2 inches thick at the center. Shall have from five to nine corrugated rings on each side.
A. Primary Blanket: Shall be of gray wool with black end stripes. No insignia. May also use blankets of brown, tan or dark blue woolen material. Captured Federal with U.S. insignia. No modern military blankets.
B. Secondary Blanket: Will include quilts of period style and fabric, black or red woolen blankets.
XVII. Ground Cloth
A. Oil Cloth (preferred): Shall be of single or double thickness canvas or cotton duck painted (water proofed) on one side. Corners may have small grommets or holes reinforced with a button hole stitch.
B. Gum Blanket: Shall be of black rubberized cotton cloth with small grommets. A slit opening with button closure shall be allowed for use as a poncho.
XVIII. Soft Knapsacks - Three styles permitted:
A. Mexican War style knapsack: Shall have a single bag with three button flap and connected at the top to a large folding flap for the blanket. Blanket flap shall have two sides which fold over the blanket and are secured with cloth ties. Blanket flap should then fold over top and front of bag to form back of knapsack. Shall have black or brown bridle leather straps that surround knapsack and come over shoulders. All straps shall have japanned roller buckle adjustments. Bag and flap shall be of black painted canvas or cotton duck.
B. Single bag knapsack: Shall consist of a large single bag of black painted canvas or duck with a top flap. Closure of flap shall be with two or three black or brown leather straps with japanned roller buckles sewn to the bag. Interior shall have a. single cotton cloth divider. Black or brown bridle leather straps shall surround the bag and cross over the shoulders.
C. Model 1853/55 Knapsack: Shall be of double bag type constructed of painted black canvas or duck. Shall have four flap bag with cloth or leather closures. The two shall be secured together at the bottom with three leather strap and roller buckle closures. Shoulder straps shall have japanned roller buckle adjustments and knapsack hooks. All leather is to be black bridle leather.
A. Watches shall be of key wind type.
B. Eating utensils will be of period type, with bone or wood handles.
C. Plates, cups, boilers, etc. should be of tin.
D. Fry pans made of sheet metal with solid handles or use canteen half with wire handle.
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